July 27, 2017
a) MIND-COMPUTER INTERFACE
a01) A new method to detect Event-Related Potentials based on Pearson’s correlation
Giroldini, W., Pederzoli, L., Bilucaglia, M., Melloni, S. and Tressoldi, P.E.
Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are widely used in Brain-Computer Interface applications and in neuroscience.
Normal EEG activity is rich in background noise and therefore, in order to detect ERPs, it is usually necessary to take the average from multiple trials to reduce the effects of this noise.
The noise produced by EEG activity itself is not correlated with the ERP waveform and so, by calculating the average, the noise is decreased by a factor inversely proportional to the square root of N, where N is the number of averaged epochs.
This is the easiest strategy currently used to detect ERPs, which is based on calculating the average of all ERP’s waveform, these waveforms being time- and phase-locked.
In this paper a new method called GW6 is proposed, which calculates the ERP using a mathematical method based only on Pearson’s Correlation. The result is a graph with the same time resolution as the classical ERP and which shows only positive peaks representing the increase –in consonance to the stimuli – in EEG signal correlation over all channels.
This new method is also useful for selectively identifying and highlighting some hidden components of the ERP response that are not phase-locked, and that are usually hidden in the standard and simple method based on the averaging of all the epochs.
These hidden components seem to be caused by variations (between each successive stimulus) of the ERP’s inherent phase latency period (jitter), although the same stimulus across all EEG channels produces a reasonably constant phase.
For this reason, this new method could be very helpful to investigate these hidden components of the ERP response and to develop applications for scientific and medical purposes.
Moreover, this new method is more resistant to EEG artifacts than the standard calculations of the average and could be very useful in research and neurology. The method we are proposing can be directly used in the form of a process written in the well known Matlab programming language and can be easily and quickly written in any other software language.
EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology. 2016, 2016:11
or to download the PDF directly EURASIP – A new method
May 21, 2015
b) MIND TO MATTER INTERACTION
b04) Can Our Minds Emit Light at 7300 km Distance? A Pre-Registered Confirmatory Experiment of Mental Entanglement with a Photomultiplier
Tressoldi, P.E., Pederzoli, L., Matteoli, M., Prati E. and Kruth, J.G.
With this pre-registered confirmatory study, we aimed at replicating the findings observed in two previous experiments where the focused mental entanglement (ME) with a photomultiplier located approximately 7300 km far from the location of a small group of selected participants, showed an increase in the number of photons with respect to the control periods.
In particular we aimed at replicating the increase of approximately 5% of photons detected in the ME periods with respect to the control periods in the bursts of photons exceeding six standard deviations from their mean. The results observed in this study confirmed this increase replicating what observed in the two previous experiments.
We discuss the characteristics of these photons which energy is estimated in approximately 65 eV at 788 THz and how ME can generate them at distance.
NeuroQuantology 2016; 3:447-455
to download directly the PDF: -neuroquantology-can-our-minds-emit-light-at-7300-km-distance
b03) Can Our Minds Emit Light? Mental Entanglement at Distance with a Photomultiplier
Tressoldi, P.E., Pederzoli, L., Ferrini, A., Matteoli, M., Melloni, S., and Kruth, J.G.
With two pre-registered confirmatory studies we aimed at investigating if focused mental entanglement (ME) by five selected participants could increase the number of photons detected every half second by a photomultiplier located at the Rhine Research Center, North Carolina, USA, approximately 7.300 km far from the participants’ location.
In the first experiment, the comparisons between ten periods of five minutes of ME and ten control periods recorded before and after the ME, revealed only a difference between the control periods recorded after the ME and those recorded before the ME. An exploratory analysis of the trend of the photons count revealed a sort of cumulative effect of ME lasting half an hour.
In the second experiment, this cumulative effect of ME was not observed.
However the comparison between the pre-ME, post-ME and the control periods in the two experiments, revealed an increase of approximately 5% of photons detected in the bursts exceeding 6 standard deviations from the average count in the post-ME periods with respect to the pre-ME and the control periods. Furthermore it was observed a correlation between the mean of photons per minute obtained in the post-ME periods of the two experiments.
We discuss how ME can generate and act on photons at distance.
or to download the PDF directly 2625527
July 1, 2015
b02) Mental Interaction at Distance on a Photomultiplier: A Pilot Study
Tressoldi, P.E., Pederzoli, L., Caini, P., Ferrini, A., Melloni, S., Richeldi, D., Richeldi, F. , Kruth, J. G.
With this pilot exploratory study we aimed at investigating if focused mental intention by selected participants could increase in the level of photons detected by a photomultiplier located in a very distant location with respect to the control conditions.
Five participants selected for their long experience with hypnosis and mental control practices and their strong motivation toward this line of research, tried to increase the rate of photons detected by a photomultiplier located approximately 7330 km far from their location, both when in an Out of Body state of consciousness induced by an hypnotic suggestion and when in a normal state of consciousness. The comparison of ten experimental sessions with two types of ten control sessions revealed an average increase of approximately 20 photons per minute during the experimental sessions. These preliminary results suggest that the physical carrier of the mental interaction at distance can be the biophotons.
or to download the PDF directly 2506135
October 24, 2014
b01) Mind-matter interaction at a distance of 190 km: Effects on a Random Event Generator Using a Cutoff Method
Tressoldi, P.E., Pederzoli, L., Caini, P., Ferrini, A., Melloni, S., Richeldi, D., Richeldi, F., Duma, G.M.
We used a new method to test whether subjects could influence the activity of a distant random event generator (REG). In a pilot study, participants selected for their strong motivation and capacity to control their mental activity were requested to alter the functioning of a REG, located in a laboratory approximately 190 km so as to achieve a deviation of ± 1.65 standard scores from the expected mean, during sessions lasting approximately 90 seconds. The predefined cutoff was achieved in 78% of 50 experimental sessions compared to 48% of the control sessions. This study was replicated with a pre-registered confirmatory study involving thirty-four participants selected according the same criteria as in the pilot study. Each participant contributed three sessions completed in three different days giving a total of 102 sessions. The same number of control sessions was carried out. The percentage of the experimental sessions which achieved the predefined cutoff was 82.3% out of 102, compared to 13.7% for the control ones. We discuss the opportunities for exploiting this method as a mental telecommunication device.
or to download the PDF directly 767-2050-1-PB
c) MIND TO MIND INTERACTION
c04) Brain-to-Brain interaction at a distance: a global or differential relationship?
Giroldini, W., Pederzoli, L., Bilucaglia, Prati, E., Tressoldi, P.E.
The main objective of this exploratory study was confirmation of the positive results obtained from research by Giroldini et al, 2016, relative to the possibility of identifying a long-distance connection between the EEG activities of two totally isolated separated subjects, one of whom was stimulated with light and sounds.
Furthermore, this work sought to answer the following questions:
-What is the relationship between the intensity (or power) of the signal in the stimulated partner’s EEG activity and the other distant partner’s signal?
-Is the relationship between the EEG activities of the stimulated and distant isolated partners global (ie, an undifferentiated response), or is it differentiated and thus displays variations depending on the characteristics of the stimuli applied to one of the pair?
From the results of twenty pairs of subjects we found an increase in the correlation (in the typical frequency bands of EEG activity) among the EEG channels of the isolated distant partners, corresponding to the stimulation frequencies used for the stimulated partner. Furthermore, we found that this relationship is not correlated with the response intensity of the stimulated partner.
June 24, 2017
c03) EEG correlates of social interaction at distance
Giroldini, W., Pederzoli, L., Bilucaglia, M., Caini, P., Ferrini, A., Melloni, S., Prati, E., Tressoldi, P.E.
This study investigated EEG correlates social interaction at distance between twenty-five pairs of participants who were not connected by any traditional channels of communication.
Each session involved the application of 128 stimulations separated by intervals of random duration ranging from 4 to 6 seconds. One of the pair received a one-second stimulation from a light signal produced by an arrangement of red LEDs, and a simultaneous 500 Hz sinusoidal audio signal of the same length. The other member of the pair sat in an isolated sound-proof room, such that any sensory interaction between the pair was impossible.
An analysis of the Event-Related Potentials associated with sensory stimulation using traditional averaging methods showed a distinct peak at approximately 300 ms, but only in the EEG activity of subjects who were directly stimulated. However, when a new algorithm was applied to the EEG activity based on the correlation between signals from all active electrodes, a weak but robust response was also detected in the EEG activity of the passive member of the pair, particularly within 9 – 10 Hz in the Alpha range. Using the Bootstrap method and the Monte Carlo emulation, this signal was found to be statistically significant.
F1000Research2015,4:457- February 26, 2016
or to download the PDF directly F1000Research – EEG correlates of social interaction at distance
c02) Brain-to-Brain (mind-to-mind) interaction at distance: a confirmatory study
Tressoldi, P.E., Pederzoli, L., Bilucaglia, M., Caini, P., Fedele, P., Ferrini, A., Melloni, S., Richeldi, D., Richeldi, F ., Accardo, A.
This study reports the results of a confirmatory experiment testing the hypothesis that it is possible to detect coincidences of a sequence of events (silence-signal) of different length, by analyzing the EEG activity of two human partners spatially separated when one member of the pair receives the stimulation and the second one is connected only mentally with the first.
Seven selected participants with a long friendship and a capacity to maintain focused mental concentration, were divided into two groups located in two different laboratories approximately 190 km apart. Each participant acted both as a “stimulated” and as a “mentally connected” member of the pair for a total of twenty sessions overall.
The offline analysis of EEG activity using a special classification algorithm based on a support vector machine, detected the coincidences in the sequence of events of the stimulation protocol between the EEG activity of the “stimulated” and the “mentally connected” pairs.
Furthermore the correlation of the power spectra of the five EEG frequency bands between each of the twenty pairs of data was analyzed using a bootstrap procedure.
The overall percentage of coincidences out of 88 events was 78.4% and the statistically significant average correlations between the EEG alpha and gamma bands among the pairs of participants, confirmed the results observed in a pilot study. The examination of potential internal, external and statistical artifacts which might have caused these results, ruled out external and internal artifacts. However, the examination of potential statistical artifacts revealed a good level of coincidences in only four pairs using a new procedure to detect the sequences of silence and signal between the EEG activity of the pairs of participants, giving a mild support to the hypothesis that two brains and hence two minds can be connected at distance.
F1000Research2014, 3:182 – August 5, 2014
or to download the PDF directly 3-182_v3
c01) Brain-to-brain (Mind-to-Mind) Interaction a at Distance: A Pilot Study
Tressoldi, P.E., Pederzoli, L., Bilucaglia, M., Caini, P., Fedele, P., Ferrini, A., Melloni, S., Accardo, A.
The hypothesis to detect a sequence of events by analyzing the EEG activity of two human partners spatially separated and connected only mentally, was explored sending to a member of the couple a sequence of silence-signal events and analyzing the EEG activity of the second member of the couple. By using a special classification algorithm and five couples of participants characterized by a long friendship and a capacity in maintaining a focused mental concentration, we observed an overall percentage of correct coincidences of 78%, ranging from one-hundred percent for the first two segments, to approximately forty-three percent of the last two. The percentages of coincidences of the first five segments of the protocol were above eighty percent. Furthermore a robust statistically significant correlation was observed in the alpha band in twelve out fifteen pairs of recordings.The observed results seem supporting the possibility to connect two brains at distance excluding conventional means, paving the way to devise a sort of mental telecommunication at distance.
or to download directly PDF 2423852
May 24, 2014
d) BIDIRECTIONAL CONTROL OF AN OBE DURING HYPNOSIS
D05) A guide for OBE induction
After having demonstrated that it is possible to control an OBE (Out of Body Experience) by means of hypnotic suggestions, we furthered our knowledge of this type of experience by carrying out many OBEs with different subjects, all of whom had particular talents; some of them repeated the experiment many times, such that a total of over 20 hours of OBEs were completed for each of these individual subjects.
This allowed us to formulate a clear description of the means of induction as well as standard reactions and ways to circumvent fears and obstacles. The purpose of this work is to publicize these experiences to date, and enable the reproduction of the hypnotic OBE experience by providing descriptions of induction, first level OBE training, and then more advanced training, including all expedients to facilitate mastery of this state of consciousness.
Luciano Pederzoli, Patrizio E. Tressoldi
March, 19 2018
D04) Out-of-body-experiences: a phenomenological comparison of different causes
De Foe, A., Al Khafaji, B.E., Pederzoli, L., Prati, E. and Tressoldi, P.
In out-of-body experiences (OBEs) the typifying phenomenal experience is the continuity/existence of the self, outside the boundaries of the physical body. In this work several characteristics of these experiences were investigated using the accounts of participants who underwent them via three forms of induction: (a) by way of hypnotic induction; (b) after traumatic physical experiences that can be defined as near-death experiences (NDEs); (c) and via non-traumatic experiences, such as meditation.
In each group, these experiences were described generally as positive and entail a state of greater phenomenal clarity compared to ordinary consciousness. Furthermore, a decrease in perception of time and one’s personal boundaries were reported. The lack of substantial differences across groups suggests that all OBEs shares similar characteristics which are not necessarily modulated by induction type. Nonetheless, there were some differences across groups which were noteworthy; namely, hypnotically-induced OBEs resembled more closely a phenomenology of NDEs than that of typical spontaneous accounts.
to download directly PDF: OBE, a phenomenological comparison of different causesd
January 24, 2017
d03) Out-of-Body experience induced by hypnotic induction: a neurophenomenological study
Pederzoli, L., Giroldini, W., Duma, G.M., Mento, G., Prati, E. and Tressoldi, P.E.
The main objective of this study was to compare the neurophenomenology of the Out-of-Body-Experience (OBE) state induced by hypnotic suggestion on a group of five selected participants with other states of consciousness, specifically the state of imagined OBE and hypnosis.
From a phenomenological point of view, a comparison of the OBE state with that of deep hypnosis, measured by using the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory, gave higher scores of Self-Awareness, Memory, Rationality, Voluntary Control and Imagery for the OBE.
From a neurophysiological perspective, the major difference – with respect to all other control conditions – was an increase in the power spectrum density and a decrease of coherence of the delta band when participants were required to answer questions posed by the hypnotist during their OBE state, suggesting that this could be the neurophysiological marker of this special state of consciousness.
or to download the PDF directly: OBE INDUCED BY HYPNOTIC INDUCTION A NEUROPHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY
August 9, 2016
d02) Hypnotically Induced Out-of-Body Experience: How Many Bodies Are There? Unexpected Discoveries About the Subtle Body and Psychic Body
Patrizio E. Tressoldi, Luciano Pederzoli, Patrizio Caini, Alessandro Ferrini, Simone Melloni, Elena Prati, Diana Richeldi, Florentina Richeldi, Alice Trabucco
The possibility to induce real out-of-body experiences (OBEs) using hypnotic inductions, with the opportunity to interview participants during their experience, permits to investigate in depth the characteristics of different aspects of this particular state of consciousness from a first-person point of view. In this article, six selected participants report the description of another “body” we named “subtle body,” identified as an intermediate entity between the physical body (Pb) and their “Self” or “I-identity” that was named “psychic body,” and their relationships and characteristics. The “subtle body” was described as a sort of white silvered cloud surrounding the Pb, with a particular enlargement of its hands and feet that could move quickly like flying from one place to another even if less easily than the “psychic body,” and a vague sense of attrition was perceived when passing through walls. Similar to the “psychic body,” the “subtle” one too could move forward and backward in time even if they did not seem perceiving the sense of time. The “subtle body” was referred to be connected with the physical one by a sort of white brilliant link sometimes described like a silvered string more or less visible, whereas no visible links were identified between the “subtle body” and the “psychic” one. These reports were compared with similar descriptions deriving from the Vedanta philosophy and Theosophical tradition.
SAGE OpenOctober-December 2015: 1–11 – November 18, 2015
or to download the PDF directly 2158244015615919.full
d01) Out of Body Experience Induced by Hypnotic Suggestion: Phenomenology and Perceptual Characteristics
Tressoldi, P.E., Pederzoli, L., Caini, P., Ferrini, A., Melloni, S., Richeldi, D., Richeldi, F., Trabucco, A.
The aim of this study is the investigation of the perceptual and cognitive characteristics of Out-of- Body Experiences (OBEs) induced by hypnotic induction. Five participants selected for their experience with hypnotic inductions were induced into an OBE and were requested to verbally describe six selected images, either one or two per session, that were located in two different rooms that were hundreds of kilometers from the place where they were under hypnosis.
Furthermore, their real-time phenomenological experience was investigated with respect to the minimal phenomenal selfhood (MPS) and the similarities with the characteristics of spatial and temporal perception reported in near death experiences (NDEs). On average, the participants correctly identified 46.7% of the images, whereas two independent judges correctly identified 66.7% of them, compared to a probability of 25% expected due to chance.
The phenomenology of their out-of-body perceptual and cognitive experiences revealed a general commonality among all participants. All participants reported a phenomenological experience of a disembodied personal selfhood able to perceive simply by an act of will without the physical limitation of eyesight, to move in the environment instantaneously and exist in a sort of three dimensional world with no awareness of time.
The comparison among the first person verbal reports of our participants, a group who declared to have had spontaneous OBEs and a group declaring to have only read about OBEs, supports the hypothesis that the verbal reports of participants were due to real OBEs and not to their previous knowledge about OBE or to the hypnotist’s ones.
March 17, 2014
or to download the PDF directly 2443719
e) THEORETICAL ANALYSIS
e03) The Physics of Mind-Matter interaction at a distance
Pederzoli, L., Giroldini, W., Prati E. e Tressoldi, P.
The aim of this work is identification and localisation of the interaction between mind and matter, specifically with respect to random number generators, and identification of the type of energy that can alter the degree of randomness of bit-string outputs of these electronic devices.
Regarding localisation of the mind/random-number-generator interaction, we believe it occurs through the production of electron+gap pairs in the inversely polarised P-N junction of the Zener diode that is used as a white noise generator, with resulting peaks of non-random current.
Conversely, regarding the type of energy acting on the analogue signal, we believe it is made of photons of wavelength ranging from 0.2 to 1.1 μm, each therefore carrying an energy of between 6.2 and 1.14 eV.
The most controversial part concerns the means by which the human mind can produce this type of energy from a distance to act directly on a chosen target, in that it is not possible for it to have been emitted by either the body or brain as biophotons.
or to download the PDF directly: The Physics of Mind-Matter Interaction at a Distance
e02) Nonlocal correlations within the GQT – A review
Walach, H., Tressoldi, P.E., Pederzoli L.
Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) seeks to explain and predict quantum-like phenomena in areas usually outside the scope of quantum physics, such as biology and psychology. It draws on fundamental theories and uses the algebraic formalism of quantum theory that is used in the study of observable physical matter such as photons, electrons, etc.
In contrast to quantum theory proper, GQT is a very generalized form that does not allow for the full application of formalism. For instance neither a commutator, such as Planck’s constant, nor any additive operations are defined, which precludes the usage of a full Hilbert-space formalism. But it is a formalized phenomenological theory that is applicable whenever the core element of a quantum theory needs to be captured, namely in the presence of incompatible or non-commuting operations. As a consequence, it also predicts nonlocal, generalized entanglement correlations in systems other than proper quantum systems.
In this review we summarize the specific scientific evidence relating to the quantum-like mental, behavioral and physiological nonlocal correlations. Such non-local, generalized entanglement correlations are expected, both in space and time, between subsystems of a larger system, whenever observables pertaining to the global system are incompatible or complementary to observables pertaining to subsystems, as predicted by GQT.
The result is a coherent explanation of a significant amount of controversial and seemingly weird occurrences that cannot be explained by classical physical laws. This review also offers a new perspective of the human mind’s potential.
Axiomathes Volume 26, Issue 3, September 2016
or to download the PDF directly 2695741
e03) A new model of Reality
In the hope of steering research along new pathways, this article proposes a new theoretical model that explains phenomena supported by the classical understanding of reality as well as those that seemingly violate it, including those that are labelled “paranormal” phenomena.
This new model draws upon four spatial dimensions instead of the usual three, plus a bidirectional temporal dimension (where the traditional arrow points towards the future, and another one towards the past). Furthermore, it suggests the presence of at least three “non-physical” levels of the human mind linked to three “bodies”, one of which is the Physical Body.
This model seeks to demonstrate that any phenomena – even those currently poorly understood –
June 16, 2015